Examples

CASE Objects in the Real World

The JSON-LD data on this page are available combined in the file asgard.json.

Starting a Cyber-investigation

When an investigation is initiated, the description and authorization are represented using a CASE Investigation object. Any information related to a cyber-investigation must be wrapped within a CASE bundle.

Examples of an Authorization & Investigation Objects
{
    "__CASE__": "ASGARD_2019_00162",
    "@context": {
        "kb": "http://example.org/kb#",
        "@vocab": "http://example.org/ontology/local#",
        "case-investigation": "https://caseontology.org/ontology/case/investigation#",
        "rdf": "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#",
        "rdfs": "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#",
        "uco-action": "https://unifiedcyberontology.org/ontology/uco/action#",
        "uco-core": "https://unifiedcyberontology.org/ontology/uco/core#",
        "uco-observable": "https://unifiedcyberontology.org/ontology/uco/observable#",
        "uco-tool": "https://unifiedcyberontology.org/ontology/uco/tool#",
        "uco-types": "https://unifiedcyberontology.org/ontology/uco/types#",
        "uco-vocabulary": "https://unifiedcyberontology.org/ontology/uco/vocabulary#",
        "xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
    },
    "@id": "kb:bundle-5715FCF3-6BC8-4996-8F7F-FDF289F31649",
    "@type": "uco-core:Bundle",
    "uco-core:description": "Initial evidence seizure in cross border investigation into disruption of public transportation service",
    "uco-core:object": [
        {
            "@id": "kb:authorization-79D6AB60-D679-49CE-9573-7176DFEEB7C3",
            "@type": "case-investigation:Authorization",
            "uco-core:facets": [
                {
                    "@type": "case-investigation:Authorization",
                    "case-investigation:authorizationType": "Odin_Decree",
                    "case-investigation:authorizationIdentifier": "Decree_2019_00013",
                    "authorizationAuthority": {
                        "@id": "kb:530646A9-4290-4C02-B0B3-FD2EC363834A"
                    },
                    "authorizationIssuedDate": "20190330"
                }
            ]
        },
        {
            "@id": "kb:investigation-555E5FBB-BA09-449D-AF77-8A210D016FD7",
            "@type": "case-investigation:Investigation",
            "uco-core:name": "ASGARD_2018_00162",
            "case-investigation:focus": "Denial of Service (Bifrost Bridge)",
            "uco-core:description": "An unknown person caused public disturbance and physical damage to property in Asgard, resulting in denial of service of public transportation (Bifrost Bridge).",
            "uco-core:object": [
                {
                    "@id": "kb:86F2E76A-434D-4D3F-9147-CD0CABCCA074"
                },
                {
                    "@id": "kb:E9AA4F26-D187-4F32-A602-86A6DF4B8528"
                },
                {
                    "@id": "kb:530646A9-4290-4C02-B0B3-FD2EC363834A"
                },
                {
                    "@id": "kb:B1C22D51-4A3F-4353-84FB-E210B5EFDA48"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

An Investigation can contain any CASE object, including InvestigativeActions and Traces.

Evidence Seizure & Chain of Custody

When a device is first touched, this is represented using an InvestigativeAction with an empty input to indicate that this is the beginning of Chain of Custody. The output of this InvestigativeAction is the seized object and an associated provenance record.

Examples of an InvestigativeAction & ProvenanceRecord Objects
[
    {
        "@id": "kb:investigative-action1-uuid",
        "@type": "case-investigation:InvestigativeAction",
        "uco-core:name": "preserved",
        "uco-action:startTime": {
            "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
            "@value": "2019-03-30T22:36:24.35Z"
        },
        "uco-core:facets": [
            {
                "@type": "uco-action:ActionReferences",
                "uco-action:instrument": {
                    "@id": "kb:odin-decree13-uuid"
                },
                "uco-action:location": {
                    "@id": "kb:asgard-bifrost-uuid"
                },
                "uco-action:performer": {
                    "@id": "kb:investigator2-uuid"
                },
                "uco-action:object": [],
                "uco-action:result": [
                    {
                        "@id": "kb:provenance-record1-uuid"
                    },
                    {
                        "@id": "kb:suspect-device-uuid"
                    }
                ]
            }
        ]
    },
    {
        "@id": "kb:provenance-record1-uuid",
        "@type": "case-investigation:ProvenanceRecord",
        "uco-core:description": "Suspect device found near Bifrost Bridge after disruption",
        "case-investigation:exhibitNumber": "AsgardPD-20190330-001A",
        "uco-core:object": [
            {
                "@id": "kb:suspect-device-uuid"
            }
        ]
    },
    {
        "@id": "kb:suspect-device-uuid",
        "@type": "uco-observable:CyberItem",
        "uco-core:facets": [
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:Device",
                "uco-observable:manufacturer": "Apple",
                "uco-observable:deviceType": "iPhone",
                "uco-observable:model": "MG552",
                "uco-observable:serialNumber": "F18Q4LGRG5MD"
            },
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:MobileDevice",
                "uco-observable:keypadUnlockCode": "123789",
                "uco-observable:IMEI": "359305065690067",
                "uco-observable:MSISDN": "1239275339",
                "uco-observable:clockSetting": "2019-03-30T22:36:24.35Z",
                "localeLanguage": "no_AS",
                "uco-observable:phoneActivationTime": {
                    "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
                    "@value": "2018-05-09T07:36:24.35Z"
                },
                "uco-observable:storageCapacityInBytes": {
                    "@type": "xsd:long",
                    "@value": 17179869184
                }
            },
            {
                "@type": "iPhoneDevice",
                "uniqueID": "B3858A69A29375E6C706226B3633A3A11EB2A774",
                "ownerName": "Loki iPhone"
            },
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:OperatingSystem",
                "uco-core:name": "iOS",
                "uco-observable:manufacturer": "Apple",
                "uco-observable:version": "10.3"
            },
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:WifiAddress",
                "uco-observable:addressValue": "d0:33:11:13:e7:a1"
            },
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:BluetoothAddress",
                "uco-observable:addressValue": "d0:33:11:13:e7:a2"
            }
        ]
    }
]

All CASE objects are inserted within the associated Investigation, wrapped in a CASE Bundle.

Evidence Acquisition

The tool used to acquire data, options used, and the resulting forensic copy are represented as an InvestigativeAction and associated Tool using CASE.

Example of an InvestigativeAction
[
    {
        "@id": "kb:219189B6-356C-4D53-A844-F0031E74F156",
        "@type": "case-investigation:InvestigativeAction",
        "uco-core:name": "acquired",
        "uco-core:description": "Suspect device physical acquisition",
        "uco-action:startTime": {
            "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
            "@value": "2019-03-30T22:17:31Z"
        },
        "uco-action:endTime": {
            "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
            "@value": "2019-03-30T22:47:32Z"
        },
        "uco-core:facets": [
            {
                "@type": "uco-action:ActionReferences",
                "uco-action:instrument": {
                    "@id": "kb:tool-embeddedextractor1-uid"
                },
                "uco-action:location": {
                    "@id": "kb:309BC178-1836-47B7-AA15-94EA3A2C7401"
                },
                "uco-action:performer": {
                    "@id": "kb:E9AA4F26-D187-4F32-A602-86A6DF4B8528"
                },
                "uco-action:object": [
                    {
                        "@id": "kb:suspect-device-uuid"
                    }
                ],
                "uco-action:result": [
                    {
                        "@id": "kb:90F73123-DB7E-41E5-B6CA-493B96E4B89F"
                    },
                    {
                        "@id": "kb:97C74753-FCEB-49C8-A611-7A70EF46AB5D"
                    },
                    {
                        "@id": "kb:EBAB06EE-7522-42D6-96EA-E3121D67E393"
                    },
                    {
                        "@id": "kb:48C0F0E8-9A63-45EE-99BF-23CC354C3252"
                    },
                    {
                        "@id": "kb:B2A7B20E-8307-40CF-ABAF-9733ABBF4335"
                    }
                ]
            }
        ]
    },
    {
        "@id": "kb:tool-embeddedextractor1-uid",
        "@type": "uco-tool:Tool",
        "uco-core:name": "Embedded Device Extrator",
        "uco-tool:toolType": "Extraction",
        "uco-tool:creator": "Harald",
        "uco-tool:version": "1.2.0",
        "uco-core:facets": [
            {
                "@type": "uco-tool:ToolConfigurationType",
                "uco-tool:configurationSettings": [
                    {
                        "@type": "uco-tool:ConfigurationSettingType",
                        "uco-tool:itemName": "ExtractionMethod",
                        "uco-tool:itemValue": "iOS_Backup"
                    },
                    {
                        "@type": "uco-tool:ConfigurationSettingType",
                        "uco-tool:itemName": "ExtractionType",
                        "uco-tool:itemValue": "File System"
                    }
                ]
            }
        ]
    },
    {
        "@id": "kb:suspect-mobiledevice-forensicduplicate-uuid",
        "@type": "uco-observable:CyberItem",
        "uco-core:facets": [
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:File",
                "uco-observable:createdTime": {
                    "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
                    "@value": "2019-03-30T22:12:19.32Z"
                },
                "uco-observable:extension": "dd",
                "uco-observable:fileName": "AsgardPD-2019033001-01.dd",
                "uco-observable:filePath": "C:/evidence/AsgardPD-2019033001-01.dd",
                "uco-observable:isDirectory": false,
                "uco-observable:sizeInBytes": {
                    "@type": "xsd:long",
                    "@value": 160080500
                }
            },
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:ContentData",
                "uco-observable:hash": [
                    {
                        "@type": "uco-types:Hash",
                        "uco-types:hashMethod": {
                            "@type": "uco-vocabulary:HashNameVocab",
                            "@value": "SHA256"
                        },
                        "uco-types:hashValue": {
                            "@type": "xsd:hexBinary",
                            "@value": "7ea081166336119da78ee4bbdbd06840b94efe28988a2bdb0bcf2387a481e283"
                        }
                    }
                ],
                "uco-observable:sizeInBytes": {
                    "@type": "xsd:long",
                    "@value": 9080500
                }
            }
        ]
    }
]

[placeholder for dc3dd wrapper]

Evidence Extraction

Information extracted from a forensic copy of digital evidence, along with the tool used, can be represented using CASE.

Example of a Filesystem Trace

Note that the file size in the File property bundle is greater than the size in the ContentData property bundle. This highlights the context-sensitive difference in purpose of sizeInBytes. In File, the size represents the file system's record of the file's size. In ContentData, the size represents the measurable size of extracted or extractable file content. The latter can be less than the file system reports due to, for instance, a faulty storage device.

[
    {
        "@id": "kb:suspect-device-mmssms-uuid",
        "@type": "uco-observable:CyberItem",
        "uco-core:facets": [
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:File",
                "uco-observable:createdTime": {
                    "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
                    "@value": "2019-03-30T08:12:19.32Z"
                },
                "uco-observable:extension": "db",
                "uco-observable:fileName": "/mobile/sms.db",
                "uco-observable:isDirectory": false,
                "uco-observable:sizeInBytes": {
                    "@type": "xsd:long",
                    "@value": 142925
                }
            },
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:ContentData",
                "uco-observable:sizeInBytes": {
                    "@type": "xsd:long",
                    "@value": 122925
                },
                "uco-observable:magicNumber": "U1FMaXRlIGZvcm1hdCAzAA==",
                "uco-observable:hash": [
                    {
                        "@type": "uco-types:Hash",
                        "uco-types:hashMethod": {
                            "@type": "uco-vocabulary:HashNameVocab",
                            "@value": "SHA256"
                        },
                        "uco-types:hashValue": {
                            "@type": "xsd:hexBinary",
                            "@value": "a13225720074371d56a4f4d5117fbb4953c5b1d316b31f21edcb7ed8fdf66c6e"
                        }
                    }
                ]
            }
        ]
    },
    {
        "@id": "kb:trace-relationship3-uuid",
        "@type": "uco-observable:CyberRelationship",
        "uco-core:source": {
            "@id": "kb:suspect-device-mmssms-uuid"
        },
        "uco-core:target": [
            {
                "@id": "kb:suspect-image-filesystem-uuid"
            }
        ],
        "uco-core:kindOfRelationship": {
            "@type": "uco-observable:CyberItemRelationshipEnum",
            "@value": "Contained_Within"
        },
        "uco-core:isDirectional": true,
        "uco-core:facets": [
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:PathRelation",
                "uco-observable:path": "/mobile/sms.db"
            }
        ]
    }
]
Example of a Mobile Device Trace
[
    {
        "@id": "kb:sms_message1",
        "@type": "uco-observable:CyberItem",
        "uco-core:facets": [
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:Message",
                "uco-observable:application": {
                    "@id": "kb:sms_application1"
                },
                "uco-observable:messageText": "Yo dude! This is my new number.",
                "uco-observable:from": {
                    "@id": "kb:phone_account3"
                },
                "uco-observable:to": [
                    {
                        "@id": "kb:phone_account1"
                    }
                ],
                "uco-observable:sentTime": {
                    "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
                    "@value": "2010-01-15T17:59:43.25Z"
                }
            }
        ]
    },
    {
        "@id": "kb:phone_call1",
        "@type": "uco-observable:CyberItem",
        "uco-core:facets": [
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:PhoneCall",
                "uco-observable:callType": "mobile",
                "uco-observable:startTime": {
                    "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
                    "@value": "2010-01-15T17:59:43.25Z"
                },
                "uco-observable:endTime": {
                    "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
                    "@value": "2010-01-15T18:30:41.25Z"
                },
                "uco-observable:from": {
                    "@id": "kb:phone_account1"
                },
                "uco-observable:to": {
                    "@id": "kb:phone_account2"
                },
                "uco-observable:duration": {
                    "@type": "xsd:long",
                    "@value": 1862
                }
            }
        ]
    }
]
Example of a Network Traffic Trace
[
    {
        "@id": "kb:network-connection1-uuid",
        "@type": "uco-observable:CyberItem",
        "uco-core:facets": [
            {
                "@type": "uco-observable:NetworkConnection",
                "uco-observable:startTime": {
                    "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
                    "@value": "2009-04-03T02:29:25.6256260Z"
                },
                "uco-observable:endTime": {
                    "@type": "xsd:dateTime",
                    "@value": "2009-04-03T02:29:25.6365510Z"
                },
                "uco-observable:dst": {
                    "@id": "kb:destination-host-uuid"
                },
                "uco-observable:destinationPort": 139,
                "uco-observable:src": {
                    "@id": "kb:source-host-uuid"
                },
                "uco-observable:sourcePort": 52960,
                "uco-observable:protocols": {
                    "@type": "uco-types:ControlledDictionary",
                    "uco-types:entry": [
                        {
                            "@type": "uco-types:ControlledDictionaryEntry",
                            "uco-types:key": "Transport Layer",
                            "uco-types:value": "TCP"
                        },
                        {
                            "@type": "uco-types:ControlledDictionaryEntry",
                            "uco-types:key": "Session Layer",
                            "uco-types:value": "NETBIOSSESSIONSERVICE"
                        }
                    ]
                },
                "connectionState": "APSF"
            }
        ]
    }
]